Industry Terms Definitions

Click on a letter to see terms beginning with that letter:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC): With headquarters in Chicago, AISC is a not-for-profit technical institute and trade association established in 1921 to serve the structural steel design community and construction industry. Chicago Metal Rolled Products is an active member of the Benders and Rollers Committee of AISC

Arc: The curved portion of a bend

Arc Length: The length of a bent/rolled surface

Bend Radius: The arc of the bend itself, usually taken at the centerline. The distance from the center of curvature to the centerline (axis) of the pipe, expressed as a number multiplied by the pipe or tube size. For example, the bend radius of a 5 x D bend for a 2-inch nominal pipe size (NPS) pipe or a 2-inch tube is 10 inches (see centerline radius)

Buckling or crippling: The collapse of part of a section. For example, the web of a beam might collapse under the pressure of hard-way bending

Center to Center: The distance between the theoretical or calculated centers of two adjoining bends on the same plane. Also used for diametric measurement between the centerlines of two tangent points of a bend (i.e. 180 bend, for which the center to center distance will be equal to twice the centerline radius)

Centerline Radius: The distance from the center of the curvature to the centerline (axis ) of the pipe

Chord: The straight distance measure between the centerline points of any two points of a bend

Circular stairs: Stairs that turn right or left as a person walks up them

Cold Bending (“Pyramid” Rolling): A steel member is placed in a machine and curved between three rolls

Compound bends: Bending in two planes, i.e. the section has a radius in the plan view and a radius in the elevation. A beam bent both the easy way and the hard way is bent in two planes. You should specify the orientation for each plane. You should also specify what section of the circle each view is

Degree of Bend: The angle to which the bend is formed

Diameter: A straight line passing through the center of a circle

Distortion: Any departure from specified dimensions, usually in reference to mill tolerances. Note: Occurs in every rolled part to some degree

Easy way: Bending a section against the weak (y-y) axis. A rectangular bar bent the easy way into a circle would look like a belt

Ferrous metals: Metals that contain iron

Hard way: Bending a section against the strong (x-x) axis. A rectangular bar bent the hard way into a circle would look like a metal washer. With beam bending the hard way, the web usually has to be held in tension to avoid crippling

Helical bends: Often wrongly called spirals (spirals have varying radii but are bent in one plane, like a hose coiled on the ground or a heating element on an electric kitchen range). True helixes are used to create a circular staircase and can also be bent into 3-dimensional elliptical shapes

Hot Bending: Bending is achieved by applying heat directly to material by internal or external flame, or heating in a furnace

Induction Bending: An electric coil heats a short section of a structural member, and then it is drawn through a process similar to rotary-draw and cooled with water directly after

Non-ferrous metals: Metals that do not contain an appreciable amount of iron

Off-axis bending: When a member is not rolled on either of its two primary axes

Oil canning: Irregular warpage of a section of steel

Ovality: With round tube bending and bending of pipes, the difference in dimensions of a circular form comparing the largest dimension A to the smallest outside dimension B divided by the nominal OD

Pitch: The height of a helical coil expressed in rise over run terms, e.g. a common pitch for stairs is 7/12, i.e. a 7in vertical rise is matched with a 12in horizontal run

Point Bending/Gag Pressing: Bending is achieved by applying a select number of point loads at varying increments along the length of the steel member

Profile tolerance: The variance allowed between the actual arc of a section and the specified radius

Radius: A line segment that joins the center of a circle with any point on the materials circumference (see centerline radius)

Rise/Mid Ordinate: The distance of offset between the midpoint of a chord and an arc, perpendicular to the chord

Roll bending: The metal stock is fed into the roller bender, which is usually built in a three- or four-roll configuration, and the lower rollers push against the feed path to force the metal stock into a predetermined bend design. The machines are also called section benders or angle rolls

Rotary draw bending: Used for tube bending and bending of pipes. The metal stock is supported against a mandrel and a rotating tool provides the bending action

S-Curve: Bends occur in the same plane, but in opposite directions

Section Modulus: The strength of structural metal stock as determined by the formula S + I/c, where I is the moment of inertia of the cross section about the neutral axis and c is the distance from the neutral axis to the outermost fibers. For example, Chicago Metal’s capacity for the bending of beams exceeds 1,000 cubic inches

Slope: Calculated as the rise over the run of a segment

Shrinkage: The reduction of a section’s dimension as the result of the pressure of bending

Spiral bends: Sections bent in one plane with an increasing or decreasing radius

Synchronized Incremental Cold Bending: Performed by applying pressure in a highly synchronized fashion at several locations along the steel member

Tangent: Straight section of material on either side of the bend or arc. May be any length. In order to make the bend itself, there has to be sufficient material at each end during the bending process. Excess may be trimmed after

Tangent Point: The point at which the bend is started or ended

Three Dimensional Bending (3D bending): Think of a roller coaster where you might not have a discrete shape like a helix or cone, but which hits x,y,z points in spac.

Tolerance: the allowed variance from specified dimensions

Trim, waste, pick-up, tangent, grip, run-off, lead in and lead out: All these terms refer to the amount of extra material required in the bending process because it is sometimes difficult if not impossible to bend material to the very end of the material. Please consult with us regarding the required lengths. The waste can be reduced by grouping multiple pieces in longer lengths to be rolled. Chicago Metal Rolled Products can roll lengths up to 105 feet

Wall: The thickness of tubular material, usually expressed as “nominal” or “minimum”

Wall thickness: The thickness of the material

Waves: Distortion of a sinuous nature of a section that should be smooth

Wrinkles: Definite folds, creases or ripples formed on the surface of the pipe during bending operation

Yield Point: The point at which material will deform permanently during bending

Yield Strength: The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation

TESTIMONIALS
• "A big thank you to your team. Your parts are receiving the most positive feedback possible. Your company has new fans here."
• "Without CMRP able to roll these channels to my specifications, there was no way this beautiful round antenna would have ever worked.
• "My customer has installed several truckloads worth of 36" x 160# WF beams you rolled and cambered for us. The quality is spot on."
• "The rolled stringers were right on the button as far as pitch and radius."
• "I really appreciate your company coming through on this order & expediting the material when you said you would.You stick by their word."
• "The last order of rings were the best that we have received from you. The flanges were all flat. Keep them coming like that."
• "Thanks for OVER AND ABOVE EXCELLENT SERVICE.  The quality and accuracy of CMRP's work is outstanding"
• "The ring looks good! The OD is dead on. Thank you for your concerns regarding our questions and responding so quickly. I was impressed!"
• "Please pass on to the workers, . . . (your) rings . . . were some of the best our fitter has seen."
• "I want to thank CMRP for exceeding what you promised. You are ahead of schedule and the strakes are fitting great."
• "Your advice was a significant contribution to the project.  You provide excellent service and knowledge"
• "These pipes were rolled DEAD ON. The shop guys said they had never seen a pipe come in and hit every point like that in a long long time."
• "The rolling on these rectangular tubes was absolutely perfect! Barely any adjustment needed to be made."
• “We just placed an order for Rolled Angle Rings & you delivered them to us within 2-1/2 days ... we are three states away.”
• “I would like a quote on a spiral project. I have heard many good things about your quality and timeliness from other fabricators.”
• “The rolled beams were delivered yesterday and look very good. Thank you for great service!”
• “I’ve worked with CMRP for over 16 years and can rely on them for any size job and in any time frame. CMRP delivers every time.”
• “It is unbelievable how good a job you guys did rolling these beams.”
• “You all helped us out greatly when no one else seemed they could. Everything worked out wonderfully!”
• “The parts are very impressive and the service was stellar. I will certainly be recommending you to anyone needing such services.”
• “We got everything we needed in a very short turnaround, I appreciate it.  We are happy to have a reliable source to turn to.”
• “Quote was great! Timely, appropriate, and frankly less money than we expected.”
• “CMRP immediately took action and shipped out my order the same day! This all happened like clockwork, allowing us to meet the deadline.”
• “We only use CMRP for our rolling needs. We can always depend on getting a finished product that is to our expectations or better.”
• “I wish everyone could get quotes back that fast! That is why we use you, fast response to quotes and questions and great quality!”
• “Your quotes are always so well organized and thorough, I trust your work.”
• “On larger more complex rolling items, I typically only go to Chicago Metal Rolled Products for pricing due to quality.”
• “Thanks for providing the material. First two sets were laid out and fabricated. Radius was excellent!”
• “We really appreciate your work on this. Amazing attention for a smaller sized job. Thank you for coming through.”
• “The project was AMAZING! Thank you so much for your help. I really do appreciate it. Always a pleasure doing business with you.”
• “Your salesman provided a quick quote with an offer to explain things we should take into account. It's known you guys do the best work.”
• “Thank you for your help with the project and for getting everything complete and shipped out in a such a timely fashion. You guys saved the day.”
• “You guys did an amazing job on these stringers. We would NOT be having such a success story without your team's effort & patience!”
• “You gave me excellent service and help which I appreciated very much. Material was on time and right on spec.”
• “Your positive attitude is noted & CMRP reputation in the steel industry is impressive. All of our locations will contact you in the future.”
• “My boilermakers in the field had positive things to say about the quality and accuracy of the angles that you rolled. Thank you.”
• “The project is complete and our customer is very pleased. I appreciate your diligence and quality on this one.”
• “CMRP has been instrumental in our ability to deliver high quality & great looking parts. Any job, big or small, CMRP has come through.”
• “Your rolled steel worked great! We check lengths & chord dimensions ...everything was within an 1/8".”
• “We received our order on time and the level of workmanship is excellent!"
• “Your company did a great job rolling these parts. Our fab and installation is going very well thanks to the quality of your work."
• “Your company is the only one that was able to give me a quote that was right on with my specs, everyone else had to modify at least one dimension."
• “Thank you for the follow through & turn around time, it greatly helps in the environment that exists today."
• “This was our first experience with your company & I was very impressed with all aspects."
• “I want all to know your hard work and efforts have not gone without appreciation."
• “The accuracy and quality of your product put a smile on our foremans face - that is hard to come by."
• “Competitive price. Beat the schedule. No complaints from the project site."
• “We appreciate you working with our tight schedule and overdelivering on this project."
• “The rolled segments were perfect and priced right. We will definitely use you again."
• “Your group is awesome to work with and greatly appreciated!"
• “You did EVERYTHING correctly. That's why you guys are the best in the business!"
• “It was very impressive to get such rapid service and a great product."
• “Very impressed with your speed and overall service!"
• “Great service, product looks good, arrived a day early. Thank you!"
• “Your work, as always, near perfect, timely, and accurate. Exactly the same for the last 40 years."
• “Absolutely fantastic job by your guys! The fit of the two parts in AWESOME!"
• “The other guys were off by 3/4", CMRP spot on. We won't even question where to send our rolled plates in the future."
• “Your guys responsiveness is way better than any vendor that I have ever dealt with!"
• “I always appreciate your continual positive attitude even in some difficult situations."
• “We could not be happier with the parts and customer service you and your team provided. We have never been disappointed."
• “What an amazing first time experience!! Couldn't be happier!."
• “We consider your company to be one which we can always count on to be on time and accurate."
• “It was very easy working with your company. I will recommend your company to others."
• “You handle all of our orders quickly and efficiently. Working with you is a joy!"
• “Pieces fit like a glove"
• “Customer service is important to us and you hit the mark! It has been a pleasure."
• “Couldn't be happier with both the order and how quickly you processed everything. Very happy!"
• “The rolled plates & tube laser parts are perfect - having the plates rolled without any pickup, & ends meet up on true verticals is HUGE!"
• “High praises on the work you folks did. It's nice to know you guys are around."
• “Your superior service and quality are unmatched. This is not a cliche."