Custom metal cones are made from carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, and other alloys in material thicknesses from 16 gauge up to 4 inch thick. Cones are used in many industries as transitions, pipe reducers/increasers, funnels, hoppers and chutes. Light weight sheet metal cones are often used in metal duct work in ventilation systems and cones made from heavy plate are used in metal duct work for steel mills and other large manufacturing applications.
There are two major types of reducer cones. An eccentric reducer cone is a cone whose side is perpendicular to the base of the cone. A concentric reducer cone is a cone in which the axis is perpendicular to the base of the cone. Both types of reducer cones are used when you need a piping system between two different openings. Eccentric reducers unlike concentric reducers have an edge that is parallel to the connecting pipe. This parallel edge results in the two pipe having offset center lines. Eccentric reducers are preferable when liquid is running through the cone because the design helps prevent buildup of air bubbles in the system.
The dimensions that are needed in making a cone are the thickness of the material, the minor diameter, the major diameter, and the height of the cone. There is a considerable amount of software to lay out all the types of cones. The software helps create a CAD drawing of the flat layout. The flat layout is then burned out to shape by a CNC plasma cutting/flame cutting machine. The burned-out shaped is formed into cones primarily by either rolling the plate in a plate roll or forming the plate with radius dies in a press brake.
Below is a picture of a cone that is being used as a tub. The cone was made in two halves. The major diameter is 87.5 inches, and the minor diameter 55 inches. The vertical height is 11.5 inches and the thickness is 11ga.